A. Basic Sciences
A1. Immunology, Pathogenesis, and Host-pathogen Interactions
Includes innate and acquired immunity; studies on pathogenic mechanisms; transition from carriage to disease; in vitro, in vivo and animal models; immune response to carriage and infection (and microbial subversion of this process).
A2. Conventional and Molecular Microbiology
Includes carriage ecology; biofilms; mechanisms of antibiotic resistance; identification of new serotypes and variants; phase variation.
A3. Genomics and Transmission
Includes genomics (genetic epidemiology, genome-wide analyses (GWAS), gene expression and regulation, epigenetics, proteomics, Next Gen sequencing, databases and analysis tools for ‘omics) and transmission (epidemiological risk factors and transmission pathways, genomics, immune factors, bacterial factors, viral interactions, live attenuated viral vaccines, relationship between carriage and transmission, models, vaccines to reduce transmission).
A4. Interaction with Microbiome, Viruses, Other Bacteria
Includes viral-pneumococcal interactions in carriage and disease; pneumococcal interactions with other bacteria; microbiome.
B. Clinical Sciences
Current and emerging diagnostic technologies and strategies for adults and children, new assessments of existing methods, new or improved systems or approaches, and emerging technologies. Diagnostic methods for the study of pneumococcal carriage.
B2. Disease Burden in Infants, Children/Youth, and Adults
Clinical outcomes including invasive pneumococcal disease, pneumonia and otitis media. Studies on serotype distribution, antibiotic resistance and specific pneumococcal clones. Evaluation of risk factors associated with disease such as obesity and opioid use.
B3. Disease in High-risk Groups
Immunocompromised or persons at higher risk for pneumococcal disease because of chronic medical conditions, such as patients with chronic kidney, lung, or liver disease, diabetes mellitus, HIV, apslenia, sickle cell disease, or organ or bone marrow transplants. Residents of nursing homes, homes for the aged and chronic care facilities or wards, homeless populations.
B4. Pneumococcal Infections in Aboriginal Populations
Studies on pneumococcal colonisation and the burden of disease in aboriginal populations; host susceptibility; social interactions; treatments or interventions specifically targeted to indigenous populations globally.
B5. Treatment of Pneumococcal Disease in Infants, Children/Youth, and Adults
Supportive treatment (including oxygen therapy), antimicrobial therapy, clinical handling of antibiotic resistance, and strategies to improve clinical outcomes.
C1. Pneumococcal Vaccines Development
Includes pre-clinical studies, phase I to III immunogenicity and clinical studies on new vaccines; alternative vaccine strategies (including adjuvants, immunomodulation); vaccine targets and immunological mechanisms; licensing (how to conduct a trial for a new vaccine, outcome measures); translation – practicalities and ethics of new vaccines.
C2. Impact of Vaccine programs and Serotype Replacement
Includes studies on vaccine effectiveness and safety (Phase IV), vaccine impact/herd immunity on carriage and disease; serotype replacement in carriage and disease; epidemiology post-PCV; vaccine-driven serotype and genotypic changes; vaccine endpoints (such as PCV impact on pneumonia) and systems to improve consistency (such as radiology); use and limitations of administrative data to measure impact.
D. Population Sciences
D1. Epidemiology, Economics, and Mathematical Modelling
Includes epidemiology studies not fitting in other categories and mathematical modelling; modelling to assess or predict outbreaks; evaluation of cost-effectiveness of existing and future vaccines or different immunization strategies and schedules.
D2. Knowledge Translation and Public Health Policy
Application of data to clinical practice or public health programs and public health policy; studies of vaccine coverage or strategies to promote vaccination.
D3. Global Pneumonia Control and Vulnerable Populations
Includes pneumonia control and management programs for low- or middle-income settings, such as Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhoeal Disease, Integrated Management of Childhood Illness. Prevention strategies not including vaccination.
D4. Epidemics, Outbreaks and Special Settings
Includes studies of epidemics and outbreaks including the use of genomics and other tools to identify and track outbreaks and epidemics; factors underpinning increases in disease (antibiotic resistance, virulence, role of host); vaccination and treatment strategies for outbreak control or refugee settings.
E1. Special Topics
Abstracts not fitting squarely within any of the above categories